SpringCloud实现简单的微服务架构

分类: 转载文章 0人评论 ecarrizo 3月前发布

Spring Cloud是一系列框架的有序集合。它利用Spring Boot的开发便利性巧妙地简化了分布式系统基础设施的开发,如服务发现注册、配置中心、消息总线、负载均衡、断路器、数据监控等,都可以用Spring Boot的开发风格做到一键启动和部署。Spring并没有重复制造轮子,它只是将目前各家公司开发的比较成熟、经得起实际考验的服务框架组合起来,通过Spring Boot风格进行再封装屏蔽掉了复杂的配置和实现原理,最终给开发者留出了一套简单易懂、易部署和易维护的分布式系统开发工具包。 接下来我们就使用SpringCloud实现一套简单的微服务架构。 以下所有代码都已开源到github上了,地址:https://github.com/lynnlovemin/softservice

Eureka(服务注册与发现)

首先引入相关的依赖包

<parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka-server</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Dalston.RC1</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
    <repositories>
        <repository>
            <id>spring-milestones</id>
            <name>Spring Milestones</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </repository>
    </repositories>

配置application.yml

server:
  port: 8761
eureka:
  instance:
    hostname: localhost
  client:
    registerWithEureka: false
    fetchRegistry: false
    serviceUrl:
      defaultZone: http://${eureka.instance.hostname}:${server.port}/eureka/

创建启动类Application

@EnableEurekaServer
@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
    }
}

运行main方法,浏览器访问:http://localhost:8761,我们就能在浏览器看到如下界面: 这里写图片描述 说明eureka启动成功。 接下来,我们实现负债均衡、断路器、网关、客户端,所有的服务都应该注册到eureka中,并且访问eureka就能看到所有注册的服务

client(客户端)

pom.xml

<parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Dalston.RC1</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
    <repositories>
        <repository>
            <id>spring-milestones</id>
            <name>Spring Milestones</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </repository>
    </repositories>

application.yml

eureka:
  client:
    serviceUrl:
      defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/ #这里注册到eureka中
server:
  port: 8763
spring:
  application:
    name: service-hi

Application类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaClient
@RestController
public class Application {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Applicatioin.class, args);
    }
    @Value("${server.port}")
    String port;
    //这里我们提供一个接口
    @RequestMapping("/hi")
    public String home(@RequestParam String name) {
        return "hi "+name+",i am from port:" +port;
    }
}

Feign(负债均衡、断路器)

pom.xml

<parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-feign</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-hystrix-dashboard</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Dalston.RC1</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
    <repositories>
        <repository>
            <id>spring-milestones</id>
            <name>Spring Milestones</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </repository>
    </repositories>

application.yml

eureka:
  client:
    serviceUrl:
      defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/
server:
  port: 8765
spring:
  application:
    name: service-feign
feign:
  hystrix:
    enabled: true

Application类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
@EnableFeignClients
@EnableHystrixDashboard
public class Application {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
    }
}

然后再提供一个service,他的作用就是做负债均衡和断路器功能

@FeignClient(value = "service-hi",fallback = SchedualServiceHiHystric.class)
public interface SchedualServiceHi {
    @RequestMapping(value = "/hi",method = RequestMethod.GET)
    String sayHiFromClientOne(@RequestParam(value = "name") String name);
}

@Component
public class SchedualServiceHiHystric implements SchedualServiceHi {
    @Override
    public String sayHiFromClientOne(String name) {
        return "sorry "+name;
    }
}

FeignClient我们指定之前创建client时指定的name:service-hi,fallback指定服务不可用时的返回数据,这样我们启动多个client时就可以看到http请求时会交替访问不同的feign端口,当停掉clien时再访问接口会返回错误信息。

zuul(服务网关)

在一般情况下,我们不会直接暴露客户端给外部,而是通过服务网关来转发,内部服务都是在局域网内通信,外部访问不了,通过服务网关,我们还可以统一做接口的安全性校验,统一拦截,请看代码: pom.xml

<parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-eureka</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-zuul</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Dalston.RC1</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
    <repositories>
        <repository>
            <id>spring-milestones</id>
            <name>Spring Milestones</name>
            <url>https://repo.spring.io/milestone</url>
            <snapshots>
                <enabled>false</enabled>
            </snapshots>
        </repository>
    </repositories>

application.yml

eureka:
  client:
    serviceUrl:
      defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/
server:
  port: 8080
spring:
  application:
    name: service-zuul
zuul:
  routes:
    api-b:
      path: /api/**
      serviceId: service-feign #凡是以api开始的请求都访问service-feign服务

Application类

@EnableZuulProxy
@EnableEurekaClient
@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
    }
}

启动Application,访问:http://localhost:8080/api/hi,就能访问到之前我们定义的接口,接下来我们做接口的拦截:

/** * filterType:返回一个字符串代表过滤器的类型,在zuul中定义了四种不同生命周期的过滤器类型,具体如下: pre:路由之前 routing:路由之时 post: 路由之后 error:发送错误调用 filterOrder:过滤的顺序 shouldFilter:这里可以写逻辑判断,是否要过滤,本文true,永远过滤。 run:过滤器的具体逻辑。可用很复杂,包括查sql,nosql去判断该请求到底有没有权限访问。 */
@Component
public class MyFilter extends ZuulFilter{
    private static Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(MyFilter.class);
    @Override
    public String filterType() {
        return "pre";
    }
    @Override
    public int filterOrder() {
        return 0;
    }
    @Override
    public boolean shouldFilter() {
        return true;
    }
    @Override
    public Object run() {
        RequestContext ctx = RequestContext.getCurrentContext();
        HttpServletRequest request = ctx.getRequest();
        log.info(String.format("%s >>> %s", request.getMethod(), request.getRequestURL().toString()));
        Object accessToken = request.getParameter("token");
        if(accessToken == null) {
            log.warn("token is empty");
            ctx.setSendZuulResponse(false);
            ctx.setResponseStatusCode(401);
            try {
                ctx.getResponse().getWriter().write("token is empty");
            }catch (Exception e){}
            return null;
        }
        log.info("ok");
        return null;
    }
}

这样我们在调用接口前会先执行MyFilter类中的run方法,在这个方法里可以做一系列安全验证,比如token。 好了,一个简单的微服务架构就已经搭建完成了。 以上所有代码都已开源到github上了,地址:https://github.com/lynnlovemin/softservice

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